Please cite the following paper if you use DandeLiion:

  • I. Korotkin, S. Sahu, S. E. J. O'Kane, G. Richardson, J. M. Foster, "DandeLiion v1: An extremely fast solver for the Newman model of lithium-ion battery (dis)charge", Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Volume 168, Number 6, 060544 (2021). [DOI] [arXiv]



doi = {10.1149/1945-7111/ac085f},

url = {},

year = 2021,

month = {jun},

publisher = {The Electrochemical Society},

volume = {168},

number = {6},

pages = {060544},

author = {Ivan Korotkin and Smita Sahu and Simon E. J. O'Kane and Giles Richardson and Jamie M. Foster},

title = {{DandeLiion} v1: An Extremely Fast Solver for the Newman Model of Lithium-Ion Battery (Dis)charge},

journal = {Journal of The Electrochemical Society},

abstract = {DandeLiion (available at is a robust and extremely fast solver for the Doyle Fuller Newman (DFN) model, the standard electrochemical model for (dis)charge of a planar lithium-ion cell. DandeLiion conserves lithium, uses a second order spatial discretisation method (enabling accurate computations using relatively coarse discretisations) and is many times faster than its competitors. The code can be used “in the cloud” and does not require installation before use. The difference in compute time between DandeLiion and its commercial counterparts is roughly a factor of 100 for the moderately-sized test case of the discharge of a single cell. Its linear scaling property means that the disparity in performance is even more pronounced for bigger systems, making it particularly suitable for applications involving multiple coupled cells. The model is characterised by a number of phenomenological parameters and functions, which may either be provided by the user or chosen from DandeLiion’s library. This library contains data for the most commonly used electrolyte (LiPF6) and a number of common active material chemistries including graphite, lithium iron phosphate (LFP), nickel cobalt aluminum (NCA), and a variant of nickel cobalt manganese (NMC).}


Related papers that use DandeLiion:

  • S. Sahu & J. M. Foster, "A continuum model for lithium plating and dendrite formation in lithium-ion batteries: Formulation and validation against experiment", Journal of Energy Storage, Volume 60, 106516, (2023). [DOI]

  • Ferran Brosa Planella et al., "A Continuum of Physics-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Models Reviewed", Progress in Energy, Volume 4, Number 4, 042003 (2022). [DOI] [arXiv]

  • G. W. Richardson, J. M. Foster, R. Ranom, C. P. Please & A. M. Ramos, "Charge transport modelling of Lithium-ion batteries", European Journal of Applied Mathematics, 1-49 (2021). [DOI] [arXiv]

  • J. M. Escalante, S. Sahu, J. M. Foster & B. Protas, "On Uncertainty Quantification in the Parametrization of Newman-type Models of Lithium-ion Batteries", Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Volume 168, Number 11, 110519 (2021). [DOI]

  • A. Zülke, I. Korotkin, J. M. Foster, M. Nagarathinam, H. Hoster, & G. Richardson, "Parameterisation and use of a predictive DFN model for a high-energy NCA/Gr-SiOx battery", Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 168, 120522 (2021). [DOI]

  • G. Richardson & I. Korotkin, "Heat Generation and a Conservation Law for Chemical Energy in Li-ion Batteries", Electrochimica Acta, Volume 392, 138909 (2021). [DOI] [arXiv]

  • G. Richardson, I. Korotkin, R. Ranom, M. Castle & J.M. Foster, "Generalised single particle models for high-rate operation of graded lithium-ion electrodes: Systematic derivation and validation", Electrochimica Acta, Volume 339, 135862 (2020). [DOI] [arXiv]